International Journal of Psychology and Psychological Therapy

Volume 4 Num. 3 - November 2004


The Spanish Norms of the NEO Five-Factor Inventory: New Data and Analyses for its Improvement [Hacia una Mejora de los Datos Normativos en la Adaptaci?n Espa?ola del NEO-FFI]

Volume 4 Num. 3 - November 2004 - Pages 639-648


Dionisio Manga, Francisco Ramos and Consuelo Mor?n ,


This study examined the psychometric properties of the Spanish version of the NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) in a large sample of 1136 adults (444 men and 692 women). Participants who completed the NEO-FFI were university students (65%), professionals of education and health (27%), and a small group of older people (8%). Item-level analyses provided reliability measures and factor structure of the NEO-FFI. The N, E, and C scales showed higher internal consistency and homogeneity than A and O. Some weaker items, particularly in the O scale, were found. Overall, its reliability and factor structure were in line with results reported in other studies; in addition, the analyses provided similar means of scales and intercorrelations between the five factors. The present study found that normative data of Neuroticism and Conscientiousness scales can be improved in the Spanish edition of the NEO-FFI. The discussion includes the utility of improved norms for the profile analysis, suggesting its applicability as a dimensional measure for personality disorders

Key words:

Five-Factor model, Item analysis, Norms, Personality, NEO-FFI

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