International Journal of Psychology and Psychological Therapy

Volume 14 Num. 2 - June 2014


Measuring positive emotional memories in adolescents: Psychometric properties and confirmatory factor analysis of the Early Memories of Warmth and Safeness Scale

Volume 14 Num. 2 - June 2014 - Pages 245-259


Marina Cunha , Ana Xavier , Maria In?s Martinho , Marcela Matos


This paper presents the adaptation and validation of the Early Memories of Warmth and Safeness Scale for the Portuguese language in adolescents. The psychometric properties of EMWSS were analysed and its factorial structure was confirmed using a Portuguese community sample of 651 adolescents. Exploratory Factor Analysis supported a single-factor structure with 21-items and results from a Confirmatory Factor Analysis showed the goodness of fit of the model. The EMWSS for adolescents revealed excellent internal consistency, good test-retest reliability and negative correlations with depression, anxiety and stress symptoms. Overall, the results indicated that the EMWSS in its Portuguese version for adolescents is a reliable and valid self-report instrument to assess positive emotional memories in this age group.

Key words:

EMWSS, adolescence, factor analysis, positive emotional memories

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